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Friday, 28 January 2011

Simple Future - WILL

Third Year



ESERCIZI






Come abbiamo già visto in classe parlando del Future Tense, WILL può essere utilizzato per esprimere diversi tipi di azioni o eventi. 
Ad esempio, WILL può essere usato per fare delle previsioni:


FORMA AFFERMATIVA:
= The world will end in 2012 (that's nonsense!)


FORMA INTERROGATIVA (con inversione):
= Will the world end in 2012? (what a silly question!)


FORMA NEGATIVA:
= The world won't end in 2012. (that's right!)


Ancora, WILL si può utilizzare per fare una promessa, un giuramento o prendere un impegno
Vi propongo alcuni video relativi a giuramenti famosi, a partire dal Oath of Office dei presidenti americani... il testo che il presidente pronuncia nel giorno dell'insediamento è molto breve e, credo, non particolarmente difficile da capire. 
Buona visione!


I do solemnly swear (or affirm) 
that I will faithfully execute 
the Office of President of the United States, 
and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend 
the Constitution of the United States.
So help me God.

 I will execute
 I will preserve
 I will protect
 I will defend



OATH OF ALLEGIANCE
I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely 
renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, 
potentate, state, or sovereignty 
of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; 
that will support and defend 
the Constitution and laws of the United States of America 
against all enemies, foreign and domestic; 
that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; 
that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States 
when required by the law; 
that I will perform noncombatant service 
in the Armed Forces of the United States 
when required by the law; 
that I will perform work of national importance 
under civilian direction 
when required by the law; 
and that I take this obligation freely 
without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; 
so help me God.  



Wedding Vows  (Catholic) 
I, _____, take you, _____, 
to be my husband/wife. 
I promise to be true to you in good times and in bad, 
in sickness and in health. 
I will love you and honor you 
all the days of my life. 


Scout Promise
In his original book on boy scouting, 
Baden-Powell introduced the Scout Promise, as follows:
On my honour I promise that:
  1. I will do my duty to God and the King.
  2. I will do my best to help others, whatever it costs me.
  3. I know the scout law, and will obey it.
Giuramenti e solenni promesse a parte, gli anglosassoni sono anche abituati a fare una lista (spesso molto informale e scherzosa e altre volte un po' più seria) di "buoni propositi" all'inizio di ogni nuovo anno. Ad esempio: smetterò di mangiare junk food, farò più esercizio fisico ecc. Nel sito qui sotto trovate un vero e proprio generatore di "New Year's Resolutions" quindi, chissà, magari trovate l'ispirazione per creare anche voi la vostra lista personalizzata di buoni proprositi! Check it out! Click on GIMME MORE!

Il futuro con l’ausiliare WILL  viene usato anche in altri contesti, ad esempio quando ci si offre di fare qualcosa (in futuro) o si è appena deciso di compiere un’azione e ci si appresta a farla. Suggerisce un'azione volontaria. Quando ne abbiamo parlato in classe, abbiamo immaginato che alcuni studenti si offrissero volontari per compiere determinate azioni, ad esempio:
I'll open / I'll close the door!
I'll clean the blackboard!
I'll turn on /I'll  turn off the projector  / the computer / the light!
I'll help you carry those bags!
I'll open / I'll close the windows!
I'll roll down /I'll  roll up the blinds!
I'll give out the photocopies!
I'll collect the tests!
Altro uso di WILL: le cosiddette snap decisions: decisioni NON premeditate, prese nel momento in cui si parla, spontanee e istantanee. L'esempio che abbiamo fatto è quello della ragazza che di fronte alla vetrina di un negozio schiocca le dita ed esclama: I'll buy it!





TRANSCRIPT:


Hi, my name is Rebecca and today we’re going to talk about grammar, about how to use the FUTURE TENSE in conversation. Now, many of you who are ADVANCED ESL STUDENTS (studenti di ESL English as a Second Language) may already know this or you may still be surprised to hear that there is a slight difference in how we can express things in the future, especially in conversation… all right?
So, what matters when we are talking about the future tense is whether the activity we are talking about is something PLANNED or something UNPLANNED.
What do I mean by that?
By PLANNED ACTIVITY IN THE FUTURE I mean something like… TRAVELLING ABROAD. If you are going to be flying abroad you will need to book your ticket, pack your suitcases and do a number of things to plan for that event. So that’s an example – TRAVELLING – of something that you need to plan in advance.
Another example of something planned in the future is an appointment to see the doctor. You will need to call him and make this appointment in order to go and see him in the future. All right? So, this an example of PLANNED. I’ll talk about UNPLANNED in a few moments.
Let’s start now with the two different ways in which you can talk about PLANNED ACTIVITIES IN THE FUTURE. One is by using the expression GOING TO. You simply say: “I’m going to” plus the verb. In this case: “I’m going to visit John on Saturday” all right? Or, “I’m going to meet Mary at five o’clock.”
This is a way to indicate that the action will happen a little bit later in the future. That “later” could be 5 minutes later, five hours later, five days later or five years later… it really doesn’t matter in English, as long as it’s in the future, and the future means any time after this present moment. OK?
The second way to speak about planned activities in the future is by using the PRESENT CONTINUOUS. Now I know you’re going to wonder why the PRESENT CONTINUOUS. Till now you’ve probably learned that the PRESENT CONTINUOUS (for example “I’m visiting”) indicates something that’s happening now or something that’s temporary. However, you can also use the PRESENT CONTINUOUS to talk about the future as long as you add some period of time in the future to indicate exactly when that activity will happen.
Let me give you an example. If we use the same example of “visiting John” here, with PRESENT CONTINUOUS, we will simply say “I’m visiting John on Sunday.” If I say “I’m visiting John” without saying “Sunday” then you simply are talking about RIGHT NOW, you’re talking about the present. But as soon as I say  “Sunday” (and today is Friday, and Sunday is ahead in the future) then you know that I’m talking about the future. And this is the second way that I can talk about a PLANNED ACTIVITY in the future.
Again, to review, you could say:
I’m going to visit my mother on Friday” or “I’m visiting my mother on Friday”;
I’m going to play tennis on Thursday”   or  “I’m playing tennis on Thursday”
Again, these are activities that we have planned in advance. All right?
Let’s go down to the second side which is for the UNPLANNED ACTIVITIES.
What do I mean by UNPLANNED ACTIVITY? It means something that you decide at this moment, spontaneously or because you have learned some information right now to do something in the future.
For example, suppose I’m speaking to Mary on the phone, and we’re talking, and then suddenly my boss enters the room and tells me that he needs to speak to me urgently. So I tell Mary: “Mary, I’ll call you back. I need to go and speak to my boss.” “I’ll call you back.”
“I’LL”  is a contraction of “I WILL”  and indicates an activity in the future. But in this case, I make that decision (to call Mary back) AT THIS VERY MOMENT. It was not something that I had planned in advance, it was something that happened AT THIS VERY MOMENT and because of that, I decided to do it. In that case, when we’re speaking, we use WILL. Of course when we’re speaking we usually speak a little more informally and so we use contractions such as: “I’ll call you back”, “We’ll see you later” and so on.
Now, it’s possible that you could use both this [PLANNED] and this [UNPLANNED] in one sentence. How?
Well, if somebody asks you what you are going to do at the weekend… there may be some things you planned to do (and you know for sure) and there may be other things which you’re not sure about, which may happen. These are certain [PLANNED], these are uncertain [UNPLANNED]. So you could say…
“Well, what am I doing this weekend? I’m going to visit my mother (this is planned), I’m going to have lunch with her, and then, maybe, I’ll go to a movie (= go to the cinema = BrEn) or maybe I’ll go home and study.”
So here you see, in the same example, how we have moved from something PLANNED to something UNPLANNED even in the same sentence. Again, this holds true when we’re talking about conversational English. Usually, when we’re talking about BUSINESS ENGLISH or about something that’s in writing, it’s a little more formal and therefore we don’t find GOING TO and PRESENT CONTINUOUS used for the FUTURE even when activities are PLANNED.  
For example, if ABC Company announces that it’s going to have a new branch,  or  a new factory… it’s going to open a new factory in Japan, the announcement in the newspaper will usually read:
“ABS Company WILL OPEN a new factory in Japan in March.” NOT: “… is going to open” BUT: “… will open.”
Why? Simply because this is more formal, this is more business like.
And so we tend to use WILL when it’s more business like and more formal. And we tend to use WILL when we’re talking about something that’s in writing versus something in conversation.
If I was just telling you about this, I might tell you that ABC Company is going to open a new factory in Japan. But if you see it in writing, it will probably read the other way.

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

Buongiorno cara prof,
vorrei chiederle di pubblicare le seguenti canzoni perchè credo che siano molto belle:
- Never say never (Justin Bieber)
- Never let you go (Justin Bieber)
- Only girl (Rihanna
- What's my name (Rihanna)
carissimi saluti Jorina

Nadia Zaramella said...

Ciao cara Jorina,
ti dedico presto un post con le canzoni che hai richiesto!
A presto ;)

daniela tomatis said...

Hi Nadia,

I like your blog! I'm a Middle School teacher and a new-born edublogger. I think technology can be of great help for learning English.
Here is the link to my blog
http://themachinegoeson.blogspot.com/
Feel free to link to whatever you like. There are some glogsters I've made for my classes which can be useful for Middle School students.
http://themachinegoeson.blogspot.com/search/label/GLOGSTER

Daniela

Nadia Zaramella said...

Hi dear Daniela,
Thanks a lot, I'm so glad you like "A little Brit."
I've seen your own blog and I must say I really admire what you've been able to accomplish with your students. I'm sure it'll be a great source of inspiration for me as well!
I've just written a post on "The machine goes on". Your fresh ideas and strategies to enrich and enhance vocabulary fascinate me!
Keep in touch!
nadia